Surah Muhammad is the chapter no 47 of Holy Quran.
1. Those who disbelieve [in the Oneness of Allah, and in the Message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) ], and hinder (men) from the Path of Allah (Islamic Monotheism), He will render their deeds vain .
2. But those who believe and do righteous good deeds, and believe in that which is sent down to Muhammad (PBUH), for it is the truth from their Lord, He will expiate from them their sins, and will make good their state.
3. That is because those who disbelieve follow falsehood, while those who believe follow the truth from their Lord. Thus does Allah set forth their parables for mankind.
4. So, when you meet (in fight Jihad in Allah’s Cause), those who disbelieve smite at their necks till when you have killed and wounded many of them, then bind a bond firmly (on them, i.e. take them as captives). Thereafter (is the time) either for generosity (i.e. free them without ransom), or ransom (according to what benefits Islam), until the war lays down its burden. Thus [you are ordered by Allah to continue in carrying out Jihad against the disbelievers till they embrace Islam (i.e. are saved from the punishment in the Hell-fire) or at least come under your protection], but if it had been Allah’s Will, He Himself could certainly have punished them (without you). But (He lets you fight), in order to test you, some with others. But those who are killed in the Way of Allah, He will never let their deeds be lost,
5. He will guide them and set right their state.
6. And admit them to Paradise which He has made known to them (i.e. they will know their places in Paradise more than they used to know their houses in the world).
7. O you who believe! If you help (in the cause of) Allah, He will help you, and make your foothold firm.
8. But those who disbelieve (in the Oneness of Allah Islamic Monotheism), for them is destruction, and (Allah) will make their deeds vain.
9. That is because they hate that which Allah has sent down (this Qur’an and Islamic laws, etc.), so He has made their deeds fruitless.
10. Have they not travelled through the earth, and seen what was the end of those before them? Allah destroyed them completely and a similar (fate awaits) the disbelievers.
11. That is because Allah is the Maula (Lord, Master, Helper, Protector, etc.) of those who believe, and the disbelievers have no Maula (lord, master, helper, protector, etc.).
12. Certainly! Allah will admit those who believe (in the Oneness of Allah Islamic Monotheism) and do righteous good deeds, to Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise), while those who disbelieve enjoy themselves and eat as cattle eat, and the Fire will be their abode.
13. And many a town, stronger than your town (Makkah) (O Muhammad (PBUH) ) which has driven you out We have destroyed. And there was none to help them.
14. Is he who is on a clear proof from his Lord, like those for whom their evil deeds that they do are beautified for them, while they follow their own lusts (evil desires)?
15. The description of Paradise which the Muttaqun (pious – see V.2:2) have been promised is that in it are rivers of water the taste and smell of which are not changed; rivers of milk of which the taste never changes; rivers of wine delicious to those who drink; and rivers of clarified honey (clear and pure) therein for them is every kind of fruit; and forgiveness from their Lord. (Are these) like those who shall dwell for ever in the Fire, and be given, to drink, boiling water, so that it cuts up their bowels?
16. And among them are some who listen to you (O Muhammad (PBUH) ) till, when they go out from you, they say to those who have received knowledge: “What has he said just now? Such are men whose hearts Allah has sealed, and they follow their lusts (evil desires).
17. While as for those who accept guidance, He increases their guidance, and bestows on them their piety.
18. Do they then await (anything) other than the Hour, that it should come upon them suddenly? But some of its portents (indications and signs) have already come, and when it (actually) is on them, how can they benefit then by their reminder?
19. So know (O Muhammad (PBUH) ) that La ilaha ill-Allah (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah), and ask forgiveness for your sin, and also for (the sin of) believing men and believing women. And Allah knows well your moving about, and your place of rest (in your homes).
20. Those who believe say: “Why is not a Surah (chapter of the Qur’an) sent down (for us)? But when a decisive Surah (explaining and ordering things) is sent down, and fighting (Jihad – holy fighting in Allah’s Cause) is mentioned (i.e. ordained) therein, you will see those in whose hearts is a disease (of hypocrisy) looking at you with a look of one fainting to death. But it was better for them (hypocrites, to listen to Allah and to obey Him).
21. Obedience (to Allah) and good words (were better for them). And when the matter (preparation for Jihad) is resolved on, then if they had been true to Allah, it would have been better for them.
22. Would you then, if you were given the authority, do mischief in the land, and sever your ties of kinship?
23. Such are they whom Allah has cursed, so that He has made them deaf and blinded their sight.
24. Do they not then think deeply in the Qur’an, or are their hearts locked up (from understanding it)?
25. Verily, those who have turned back (have apostated) as disbelievers after the guidance has been manifested to them, Shaitan (Satan) has beautified for them (their false hopes), and (Allah) prolonged their term (age).
26. This is because they said to those who hate what Allah has sent down: “We will obey you in part of the matter,” but Allah knows their secrets.
27. Then how (will it be) when the angels will take their souls at death, smiting their faces and their backs?
28. That is because they followed that which angered Allah, and hated that which pleased Him. So He made their deeds fruitless.
29. Or do those in whose hearts is a disease (of hypocrisy), think that Allah will not bring to light all their hidden ill-wills?
30. Had We willed, We could have shown them to you, and you should have known them by their marks, but surely, you will know them by the tone of their speech! And Allah knows all your deeds.
31. And surely, We shall try you till We test those who strive hard (for the Cause of Allah) and the patient ones, and We shall test your facts (i.e. the one who is a liar, and the one who is truthful).
32. Verily, those who disbelieve, and hinder (men) from the Path of Allah (i.e. Islam), and oppose the Messenger (PBUH) (by standing against him and hurting him), after the guidance has been clearly shown to them, they will not hurt Allah in the least, but He will make their deeds fruitless,
33. O you who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger (Muhammad (PBUH) ) and render not vain your deeds.
34. Verily, those who disbelieve, and hinder (men) from the Path of Allah (i.e. Islam); then die while they are disbelievers, Allah will not forgive them.
35. So be not weak and ask not for peace (from the enemies of Islam), while you are having the upper hand. Allah is with you, and will never decrease the reward of your good deeds.
36. The life of this world is but play and pastime, but if you believe (in the Oneness of Allah Islamic Monotheism), and fear Allah, and avoid evil, He will grant you your wages, and will not ask you your wealth.
37. If He were to ask you of it, and press you, you would covetously withhold, and He will bring out all your (secret) ill-wills.
38. Behold! You are those who are called to spend in the Cause of Allah, yet among you are some who are niggardly. And whoever is niggardly, it is only at the expense of his ownself. But Allah is Rich (Free of all wants), and you (mankind) are poor. And if you turn away (from Islam and the obedience of Allah), He will exchange you for some other people, and they will not be your likes.
We have indeed, in the messenger of God, a good example of conduct for anyone whose hope is in God and in the final day. (Holy Quran)
If we could view Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) as we do any other important historical figure we would surely consider him one of the greatest geniuses the world has ever known. To create a literary masterpiece, to found a major religion and a new world power are not ordinary achievements. But to appreciate his genius to the full, we must examine the society into which he was born and the forces with which he contended. When he descended from Mount Hira to bring the Word of God to the Arabs, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was about to attempt the impossible. (Karen Armstrong)
I became more than ever convinced it was not the sword that won a place for Islam in those days. It was the rigid simplicity of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), his intense devotion to his friends and followers, his fearlessness and his absolute trust in God. (M.K. Gandhi)
Islam prevailed because it has the best social and political order the times could offer. It prevailed because everywhere it found politically apathetic peoples, robbed, oppressed, uneducated and unorganized and it found selfish and unsound governments out of touch with any people at all. It was the broadest, freshest and cleanest political idea that had yet come into actual activity in the world and it offered better terms that any other to the mass of mankind. (H.G. Wells)
The more one reflects on the history of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and of early Islam, the more one is amazed at the vastness of his achievement. Circumstances presented him with an opportunity such as few men have had, but the man was fully matched with the hour. Had it not been for his gifts as seer, statesman, and administrator, and behind these, his trust in God and firm belief that God had sent him, a notable chapter in the history of mankind would have remained unwritten. (W. Montgomery Watt)
In the strange atmosphere of Makkah, on the edge of the magnificent civilized world of great powers, just then engaged in an apocalyptic struggle, the faith was growing up which was later to overflow into the world at large and endeavor to mould it. All this was taking place in the brain of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) but stirring within it were the reflected problems of a whole world, and the historical conditions were such that the results of all this mental activity were calculated to shake Arabia and beyond. (Maxime Rodinson)
When Almighty Allah sent His last and greatest Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) mankind was immersed in a state of degeneration. The messages of the past prophets had been distorted and ignored, civilization was on the decline and humanity had slumped into an age of darkness, with disbelief, oppression and corruption rife everywhere.
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) Biography
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was born at Mecca in the year 570 A.C. known in the annals of Arabian history as the ‘Year of the Elelphant’ because of a miraculous event. That year Abraha the Christian governor of the Abyssinian king who had already subdued Yemen, marched upon Mecca with a huge army of elephants. His intention was to destroy the Ka’ba and shift the center of pilgrimage to San’a, where he had built an imposing church. But the very moment Abraha’s awesome army was poised for the attack, the Almighty God sent a swarm of flying creatures, who blackened the sky pelting the mighty force with pebbles, and within minutes destroyed elephants and warriors alike. Thus Almighty Allah humbled the arrogantly ignorant by means of an obscure creature.
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was born on the eve of 17th of the lunar month of Rabi-ul-awwal and according to some versions on the 9th of the same month. His father was Abdullah the son of Abdul Muttalib the son of Hashim and his mother Amina was the daughter of Wahab. His grandfather Abdul Muttalib had many wives and children, out of whom Abdullah and Abu Talib were from the same mother. Thus Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was a scion of the noble Bani Hashim clan a sub-division of the large Quraish tribe, descended from Prophet Ishmael (a.s.) the elder son of Prophet Abraham (a.s.).
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), right from his childhood was known for his virtue and lofty conduct and was far removed from the prevalent vices of the day like idolatry, dishonesty, drinking, gambling, cowardice etc., which were the hallmarks of the Meccan society. His noble character stood him out as the most impeccable one-ever, to the point that his people called him as-Sadiq (the Truthful) and al-Amin (the Honest). They put their complete trust in him and always turned to him as an impartial judge in their frequent disputes.
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), though endeared and respected by Meccans for his wisdom and virtues, preferred solitude and kept his distance from the polytheist society. Disgusted with the corruption all around, he used to retire to the Cave of Hera, in a mountain a few kilometers from Mecca, meditating Allah’s Majesty and worshipping Him. Initially he used to remain in the cave for a day or two and sometimes even 10 nights or more but the next few years saw him spending a whole month in that cave, praying to Allah and contemplating guidance for the deviated people.
Finally the day dawned which was to change the history of the world. When he had reached the age of 40 and was engrossed as usual in praying to Allah at his retreat of cave Hera., suddenly that harbinger of Divine tidings, the Archangel Gabriel, appeared with the first verses of the Holy Qur’an:
“Recite in the name of your Lord Who created, Created man from a clot. Recite and your Lord is most Generous, Who taught (to write) with the pen. Taught man what he knew not.” Holy Qur’an (96: 1-5)
With these verses, Gabriel (a.s.) announced to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) that Almighty Allah had formally chosen him to be His last and final Messenger to humankind. It was in the month of Rajab.
Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) heart was filled with joy, and he thanked Almighty Allah for bestowing this great honor upon him. He hurried to his house to tell his wife Khadija about his appointment to Prophet hood.
Khadija on hearing the event at once believed in her husband’s Prophet hood and so did his young cousin Ali (a.s.). Consequently Ali and Khadija became the first ever male and female Muslims respectively. Thus started the beginning of a divine mission, which was destined not only to cleanse the Arabian Peninsula of the filth of polytheism but whose radiance would eventually dispel darkness from all over the world.
Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) formal announcement of his Prophet hood had a mixed reaction on Meccan society. While the oppressed classes hastened towards the call of Islam, happy that the day of deliverance had finally dawned, the Meccan oligarchy and those who felt a danger to their vested interests and hegemony; ganged-up to ridicule the Prophet, in their desperate bid to nip in the bud the final revelation to the human race.
Undeterred by Jahiliyyah’s arrogant attempts, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) continued to propagate the great divine mission entrusted to him, and the next 23 years of his lifetime saw the gradual unfolding of the grand miraculous event; the Holy Qur’an, Allah’s own words sent down through the Archangel Gabriel. (Even today after 14 centuries, Allah’s book the Holy Qur’an stands as a living miracle for humanity. Its revelation was completed a couple of months before the Messenger’s passing away, and besides containing the ‘Shariah’ (canonical laws) for the Muslims, it is a source of knowledge goading man to contemplate and discover the mysteries of science, inspiring high ethical values and morals in its readers and showing the perfect path for mankind’s happiness both in this world and the hereafter.)